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Nephro-Urosciences & Kidney Transplantation
Centre for Nephro-Urosciences & Kidney Transplantation. The department of Nephrology at the Centre for Nephro-Urosciences & Kidney Transplantation, Meitra Hospital, Kozhikode aims to provide comprehensive clinical care integrated with transparent, ethical practices and cutting edge research. Our endeavour is to facilitate an exceptional experience for patients tethered to the best possible clinical outcomes, in tune with the larger Meitra Hospital vision. The department in phase one of inception is manned by two consultants and assisted by a dedicated team of Dialysis nurses, Technicians and other support staff. Comprehensive Nephrology care is offered; comprising of outpatient services including multidisciplinary speciality clinics, in patient renal care including consultation service and ICU dialysis, maintenance hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, treatment of poisoning, renal biopsy and management of Glomerular disease, Plasmapheresis and Plasma Exchange, The centre is equipped to provide the full range of transplantation services both living donor and deceased donor kidney transplantation. The hemodialysis unit and outpatient clinics of the CRHI are located on the first floor in the main outpatient area adjacent to the day care space. The outpatient department will function daily 9.30 AM to 5.00 PM. Maintenance hemodialysis unit will be operational Monday to Saturday 7.30 AM to 5.30 PM. Emergency hemodialysis will be provided round the clock. Inpatient services are available throughout the day.


Cystocele is a bulging, dropping or sagging of the urinary bladder into the vagina, a condition seen in women. It is also called a prolapsed, fallen or dropped bladder. Cystocele occurs when the tissues supporting the bladder become weak. In very rare cases, the prolapsed bladder can be seen at the opening of the vagina.

  • Childbirth is a common cause of cystocele
  • Pregnancy
  • Constipation
  • Obesity
  • Menopause
  • Chronic cough
  • Lifting heavy objects

Symptoms of cystocele includes:

  • Bulging of bladder in vagina that can be seen or felt
  • Urinary incontinence
  • Frequent urinary tract infections
  • Pain during sexual intercourse
  • Pressure on vaginal area
  • Pain in vagina, lower back or abdomen

Diagnosis of cystocele may involve:

  • Clinical history
  • Pelvic examination
  • Cystoscopy
  • Urine tests
  • Bladder function tests
  • Urodynamics

Cystocele can be prevented and further progression can be slowed down by the following measures:

  • Maintain a healthy weight
  • Avoid heavy lifting
  • Treat constipation, if you have the condition
  • Avoid smoking
  • Choose a high fiber diet
  • Drink plenty of fluids
  • Get regular check ups.

Treatment for cystocele depends on the cause and severity of the condition and related medical conditions, if any.

  • Treatment may not be required in mild conditions where symptoms are not exhibited
  • Implantable devices such as pessary can be inserted into the vagina to support the bladder.
  • Pelvic floor muscles exercises can be done to strengthen the muscles and support the bladder.
  • Surgery may be recommended in severe conditions where above treatment may not be effective. The type of surgery done depends on the cause of the condition.

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