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Nephro-Urosciences & Kidney Transplantation
Centre for Nephro-Urosciences & Kidney Transplantation. The department of Nephrology at the Centre for Nephro-Urosciences & Kidney Transplantation, Meitra Hospital, Kozhikode aims to provide comprehensive clinical care integrated with transparent, ethical practices and cutting edge research. Our endeavour is to facilitate an exceptional experience for patients tethered to the best possible clinical outcomes, in tune with the larger Meitra Hospital vision. The department in phase one of inception is manned by two consultants and assisted by a dedicated team of Dialysis nurses, Technicians and other support staff. Comprehensive Nephrology care is offered; comprising of outpatient services including multidisciplinary speciality clinics, in patient renal care including consultation service and ICU dialysis, maintenance hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, treatment of poisoning, renal biopsy and management of Glomerular disease, Plasmapheresis and Plasma Exchange, The centre is equipped to provide the full range of transplantation services both living donor and deceased donor kidney transplantation. The hemodialysis unit and outpatient clinics of the CRHI are located on the first floor in the main outpatient area adjacent to the day care space. The outpatient department will function daily 9.30 AM to 5.00 PM. Maintenance hemodialysis unit will be operational Monday to Saturday 7.30 AM to 5.30 PM. Emergency hemodialysis will be provided round the clock. Inpatient services are available throughout the day.

Kidney Stones

Kidney stones are hard deposits of salts and minerals that form in the kidneys. The types of kidney stones are calcium oxalate, uric acid, struvite and cystine. Kidney stones are also known as renal calculi, urolithiasis or nephrolithiasis. Kidney stones can affect any parts of the urinary tract – kidneys, ureter or urinary bladder. If identified at early stages, the condition can be treated very easily by drinking plenty of water to pass the kidney stones. This condition usually does not cause any permanent damage.


Kidney filters out waste materials from the blood and forms urine and hence urine has waste materials dissolved in it. When the amount of waste materials are high compared to the amount of water present or if liquid content is too little, the waste materials crystallises to form kidney stones. Other elements such as minerals get attached to the crystals and form a larger solid until it is passed out of the body. The possible causes of this condition includes:

  • Drinking too little or inadequate amounts of water
  • Eating foods with excess sugar or salt content
  • Family history
  • Obesity and/or weight loss surgery
  • Certain infections
  • Excess or too little exercise
  • Severe pain on either side of abdominal and lower back
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Blood in urine
  • Smelly or cloudy urine
  • Fever and chills
  • Pain while urinating
  • Urinating more often

Diagnostic procedures for kidney stones include:

  • Medical history
  • Physical examination
  • Imaging tests
    • KUB X-ray (kidney- ureter-bladder x-ray)
    • CT Scan -Computerised tomography 
    • IVP-Intravenous pyelogram
    • ultrasound
  • Blood tests
  • Urine tests
  • Analysis of passed stones
  • Drink plenty of fluids
  • Eat more fruits and vegetables
  • Reduce excess salt in your diet
  • Maintain normal weight
  • Eat calcium rich foods
  • Take foods with lesser oxalate content.

Treatment for kidney stones vary depending on the size, type and cause.

  • Small kidney stones can be removed by drinking plenty of water
  • Medications may be given to relieve pain, discomfort and to relax muscles in the ureter to pass the stones
  • Percutaneous nephrolithotomy or nephrolithotripsy is the surgical removal of large stones. Surgery may be recommended if the kidney stone is too large or if there is any infection.
  • Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is a procedure in which strong vibrations are used to break the stones so that it can be passed out easily through the urine.
  • Ureteroscopy is a procedure in which an endoscopy is inserted through the ureter to retrieve or break the stones.

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