Myocardial Infarction (Heart Attack)
Myocardial infarction, commonly known as heart attack occurs when there is a sudden blockage or decrease in blood flow to the coronary arteries that supply the heart muscles. It is a life-threatening condition and causes permanent damage to the affected heart muscle. The blockage is commonly composed of fat, cholesterol and substances like cellular waste products which form a plaque in the coronary arteries.
- Hypertension (high blood pressure)
- Spasm of coronary artery mainly due to smoking
- Family history
- Physical inactivity
- Chest pain (heavy, squeezing, burning)
- Cold sweat
- Sudden weakness
Diagnosis of Myocardial Infarction will be based on:
- Medical history
- Physical examination
- Electrocardiogram (ECG)
- Radionuclide imaging
- CT or MRI (Cardiac)
- Blood tests
- Chest X-ray
- Control blood pressure and cholesterol levels
- Regular exercise
- Avoid smoking
- Avoid alcohol consumption
- Healthy diet
- Maintain healthy weight
- Regular medical check ups
- Control blood sugar levels
Treatment for Myocardial infarction or heart attack mainly depends on the person’s stability and immediate risk of death. Treatment mostly includes medications, medical procedures and rehabilitation.
- Medications for Myocardial infarction or heart attack includes:
- Medicines to reduce and dissolve blood clots
- Medicines to prevent new clots
- Medicines for pain relief
- Medicines to improve blood flow
- Medicines to reduce blood pressure and control blood cholesterol levels.
- Medical and surgical procedures for myocardial infarction or heart attack includes
- Bypass surgery (coronary artery bypass surgery) can be done which allows blood flow to the heart muscles, bypassing the narrowed portions.
- Coronary angioplasty in which a catheter or long tube is inserted through an artery to open the blocked coronary artery.
- Rehabilitation (cardiac rehabilitation) includes lifestyle changes, medications, dealing with emotional factors and finally returning to normal daily life activities.
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